For sure. Actually, this is three questions, and breathing, eating and processing information are affected differently by variations in temperature and climate.
One of the functions of breathing is to help us cool down when its hot, so we get out of breath more easily when it is really hot.
In cold environments we need to eat more to produce heat, while in warmer countries we need to drink more water to keep hydrated. This is reason why the traditional food of cold countries, like Poland, has lots of heavy foods, like potatos and cream, while in warmer countries, like Spain, the food is a lot lighter.
For processing information, this can be affected by extremes of heat and cold, for instance if we get too hot or cold, and cannot maintain our body temperature, then we can get delirious and lose our ability to think clearly.